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The package scsitools provides the script rescan-scsi-bus.sh, which does exacly what we need. Install it and run it:
apt-get install scsitools rescan-scsi-bus.sh
This should detect the newly added hard disk and make it available in
/dev/sdb in the case you are adding a new drive for the first time. The output of
fdisk -l should include the newly detected disk.